Danish shipowners’ solutions to environmental and climate challenges
Around
90
percent
of
world
trade
is
carried
by
sea

Almost everything that surrounds us has been on board a ship. Your phone, your tablet and probably your table. Your refrigerator and the rest of your kitchen. And the building materials for your house. Many things you eat and most of what you wear. The petrol for your car and the gas used for producing your electricity and your heating. Efficient transportation leads to cheaper goods for consumers and gives producers access to the global value chains that fuel globalisation and economic development.

Shipping distance for a banana

1
1
0
0
,
4
4
6
6
4
4

km

From

Guayaquil, Ecuador

CO2 emissions per banana

22g

To

Rotterdam, Holland

Transportation cost

4 US Cents

Shipping distance for a tablet

,

km

From

Hongkong, China

CO2 emissions per tablet

55g

To

Aarhus, Denmark

Transportation cost

5 US Cents

Shipping distance for grain

,

km

From

Paranagua, Brazil

CO2 emissions per kg. grain

21g

To

Amsterdam, Holland

Fuel cost

0,11 US Cent per kg

Shipping distance for diesel

,

km

From

Port Arthur, USA

CO2 emissions per liter diesel

24g

To

Genoa, Italy

Fuel cost

0,14 US Cent per liter

International
shipping
is
by
far
the
most
energy
efficient
mode
of
transport

Yet, this does not exempt the sector from addressing its CO2 footprint as transporting most of the world’s goods by sea also impacts the environment and the climate. The industry has responsibility for minimizing this footprint by designing more environmentally friendly ships and by operating the ships more efficiently.

The most climate friendly mode of global transportation
Shipping
is
the
most
efficient
mode
of
transportation
-
especially
over
long
distances

The amount of carbon emitted when transporting one person from one part of the world to another by plane is about the same as transporting a 20-foot container the exact same distance by ship. The container could for example be filled with 48,000 bananas or 6,000 pairs of sneakers. In other words, shipping is a very energy efficient way to transport goods. But with close to 90 percent of the world's’ goods being transported by sea, shipping obviously has an impact on the global emission of CO2 and the climate challenges we are facing.

International
shipping
accounts
for
.
%
of
the
total
global
CO
2
emissions
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More
activity
,
but
 lower emissions

An increase in world trade does not automatically lead to a similar increase in CO2 emissions from merchant vessels. From 2007 to 2012, international shipping lowered its share of the total, global CO2 emission from 2.8 to 2.2% – while the amount of transported goods by ship grew by almost 20% according to CPB World Trade Monitor and Third IMO GHG Study.

Denmark
leading
by
example

The Danish Shipowners’ Association has been collecting fuel consumption data from its members since 2008. Danish shipping companies have kept their CO2-emissions constant despite a significant increase in the size of the Danish fleet. This has been possible because of sustained focus on identifying measures to improve the efficiency of maritime transport. The financial crisis also plays a role in the reduction. Improved fuel efficiency is not only good for the climate; it also represents an important tool in terms of reducing costs.

Cases

Efficiency, Economy of scale and environmentally improved

Maersk Lines 400 meter Triple-E ships have set a new standard for container transport by reducing CO2 emissions by around 35% per container carried.

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Round the clock monitoring reduces fuel consumption

NORDEN is following the fuel consumption on its ships by the hour to optimize vessel performance.

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Using data to improve efficiency

Clipper Group has developed a software solution to improve vessel performance. Most of the clients are other shipping companies.

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Hybrid ferries a stepping stone to zero emission ferries

Scandlines has turned most of its fleet into hybrid ferries that run partly on batteries.

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The human factor

The crews onboard DFDS’ compete about saving fuel. The results are impressive.

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Now
what
?
A recent study from UN’s International Maritime Organization, IMO, shows that shipping’s CO2 emissions may increase by as much as 50-250% ahead of 2050 if no measures are taken. As an influential contributor to the global carbon emissions shipping and transport in general must be part of the solution to limit the increase in the global temperature to no more than 2,0°C – or even 1,50°C as set out at COP21. Unfortunately, shipping was not included in the Paris Agreement in the sense of a clear mandate to the IMO to establish a uniform CO2 regulation. Meanwhile, the EU has adopted the MRV-regulation (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification) which makes it mandatory for ships calling European ports to report their CO2 emissions and energy efficiency, starting in 2018. Hopefully, the EU regulation can also be lifted into global regulation by the IMO as uniform regulation is the most climate effective solution while maintaining a level playing field.
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Improving the quality of the air we breathe
Limiting
health
risks
caused
by
air
pollution

Merchant ships have a history of being powered by so-called heavy fuel oil which leads to high emissions of sulphur (SOx) and particles. The air pollution causes lung diseases and asthma and also impacts oceans, lakes and forests. Strict sulphur limits have been introduced from 2015 for ships sailing in coastal areas such as the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the English Channel. Next step will be a similar regulation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and later on particle pollution.

Emission Control Areas

Limits of sulphur (SOx) emissions from ships have existed since 2007. The requirements are getting stricter and in certain regional zones, so-called Emission Control Areas (ECA’s), the limit is lower than in the rest of the world.

Improving
well
-
being
by
reducing sulphur

Ships in the SECA zones are now required to reduce the sulphur content of their fuel to a limit of 0.1% – which corresponds to a ten-fold decrease. This has already had a measurable effect on air quality in Northern Europe. From 2020 or 2025 the regional rules will be supplemented with a global 0.5% limit instead of the current global 3.5% limit.

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Technical
solutions

To comply with the sulphur requirements, shipping companies face the choice between installing relatively expensive scrubber systems that remove the pollutants, or switching to costly low-sulphur fuel, when entering the specific zones. Alternative fuels such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), which greatly reduce air pollution are also being used on some ships, and the use of these fuel types could increase considerably.

Cases

Improving air quality in coastal Europe by installing scrubbers

Shipping and logistics company DFDS has installed air cleaning systems on a number of its ships to live up to new sulphur-regulation.

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Commercial advantage by sailing on LNG

Terntank’s four new LNG-powered product tankers almost eliminate the emission of harmful gasses and particles and reduce CO2 emissions.

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LNG ferries between Norway and Denmark wage war on air polluters

The first ferries to be powered exclusively by LNG – Fjord Lines’ MS Stavangerfjord and MS Bergensfjord – are almost eliminating air pollution.

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Powering the ship by natural boil-off gas from the cargo

A series of new vessels from gas tanker operator Evergas has been designed to make perfect use of a by-product from its cargo; ethane gas.

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New Eco-tugs ready to show their abilities

Svitzer’s series of ECOtugs are improving air quality substantially, but a real eco-revolution in towage depends on stricter regulation or demands from costumers with an environmental focus.

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Now
what
?
Strict enforcement is essential to Danish shipowners, as there are significant savings to gain by not complying with the regulation. Several instances of severe non-compliance have already been witnessed across the low-sulphur zone. Ignoring the regulation harms the competitiveness of responsible shipping companies and undermines the environmental and health benefits of the regulation.
As for the limitation of NOx the goal must be to agree on more Emission Control Areas – specifically in the Baltic Sea – and ensuring that these come into force by no later than 2021.
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Dismantling with respect for the environment and ensuring decent working conditions
Around
1
,000
ships
are
recycled
every
year
and
the
number
is
likely
to
 increase

Breaking up a ship, which is often several hundred meters in length and weighs more than 50,000 tons, is a large-scale operation that comes with a lot of risks which need to be addressed.

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Today 2 out of 3 merchant ships are recycled in South Asia, and the focus here on the environment and working conditions is not always satisfactory. But things are changing under international regulatory pressure, and a growing number of yards are striving to comply with the demands from shipping companies for safe and environmentally responsible recycling.

%
of
a
ship
can
be
recycled
A
need
for
stronger
global
regulation

The International Maritime Organization, IMO, adopted the Hong Kong Convention in 2009 to secure global rules for the recycling of ships. The convention addresses environmental issues as well as the working conditions for the workers at the recycling yards. However, the convention has not yet come into force, as an insufficient number of countries, representing both the world fleet and the recycling capacity, have ratified the convention. This is not acceptable.

-
Years

The typical lifetime of a cargo ship

Ships
can
be
recycled
properly

With proper facilities and management ships can be recycled in a responsible way that ensures environmental protection as well as health and safety of the workers. The Danish Shipowners’ association has since the adoption of the Hong Kong Convention recommended its members to follow the requirements stipulated in the convention. An essential part of the requirements is to possess an inventory of the ship’s hazardous materials, which in turn enables the recycling facility to take the necessary precautions.

Case

Taking responsibility for a lifetime

Steel is a finite product and it is therefore sensible to reuse as much of it as possible. When constructing the new series of Triple-E containerships, Maersk Line developed a “Cradle-to-Cradle Passport” in an effort to improve the recycling of the materials used in the construction of each vessel.

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Now
what
?
The Danish Shipowners’ Association believes that recycling of ships should be done in a responsible way. Denmark and other shipping nations – as well as countries that recycle ships – must speed up their ratification of the Hong Kong Convention to ensure a legally binding global framework and to avoid regional regulation, which will not raise global standards.
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Protecting local marine environments
Protecting
local
marine
environments

Most ships use ballast water to stabilize the ship and to keep the propeller under water when not fully loaded. Ships will often take in ballast water in one part of the world and release it in another, potentially spreading invasive species such as microbes, plankton, jellyfish and crabs in the process. This can disturb the ecological balances in the discharge area.

A
supertanker
can
carry
around
.000m3
of
ballast
water
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Regulation
in
the
pipeline

In 2004 the International Maritime Organization, IMO, adopted a convention requiring ships to process their ballast water before releasing it back into the sea. Denmark ratified the ballast water convention in 2012. A number of other countries have done the same, yet the regulation still needs to be ratified by a few more countries in order to come into force.

How Invasive Species Move

A supertanker can carry around 100.000 m3 of seawater on one journey. They will often take in ballast water in one part of the world and release it in another, potentially spreading invasive species such as microbes, plankton, jellyfish and crabs in the process.

The
short
sea
challenge

The Ballast Water Convention was adopted to prevent the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens from one region to another. The Danish Shipowners’ Association fully supports the convention, but advocates for a pragmatic approach for short sea shipping. One example is the ferries operating on very short yet international distances, like the ferries sailing between Elsinore in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden – a 5 km trip. The environmental impact from the ballast water on areas with identical marine ecosystem should be analyzed further.

Case

Preparing for the future

When building two new cruise ferries, Fjord Line decided to install ballast water systems instead of waiting for the future regulation to come into force.

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Now
what
?
When the Ballast Water Management Convention becomes effective, the ship-owners will have up to five years to install the required IMO approved equipment. With a fleet of around 68,000 ships being included in the future regulation, one could foresee a bottleneck situation. Furthermore, the ship owners who operate in the US, are required to install a system that is also approved by the US authorities and, despite the fact that more than 50 systems have been approved by the IMO, no system has at this point been approved by the US.
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As
environmental
issues
become
increasingly
important
across
the
world,
the
Danish
Shipowners
Association
will
work
to
maintain
Denmark’s
position
as
one
of
the
 front runners.



We
support
the
innovation
of
new
solutions
and
 smarter
thinking
and
we
push
for
ambitious
global
standards
for
the
international
shipping
business
.
This
enables
us
to
facilitate
a
more
responsible
navigation
of
global
 goods.
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Supported by the Danish Maritime Fund
Smarter thinking and ambitious global standards
Chapters

Climate

The most climate friendly mode of global transportation

Air Pollution

Improving the air quality we breath

Recycling of Ships

Dismantling with respect for the environment and ensuring decent working conditions

Ballast Water

Protecting local marine environments

Future Responsibility

Smarter thinking and ambitious global standards

Intro
Climate
Air Pollution
Recycling of Ships
Ballast Water
Future Responsibility